Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

reply 1 by Samantha Gordon – Monday, 16 January 2023, 8:45 AM In discussing vari

reply 1
by Samantha Gordon – Monday, 16 January 2023, 8:45 AM
In discussing variables in health-related research it is important to understand the differences between discrete random variables and continuous random variables. According to information from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, May 18), discrete random variables are values that are integers while continuous random variables can hold any value within a certain range. In terms of using these variables in health-related data discrete random variables may be used by epidemiologists in calculating the number of people who were exposed to a specific risk factor such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Continuous random variables will be used to calculate conditions or fatalities that happen within a specific period of time, this may include infant mortality rates (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., 2012, May 18). Continuous variables may be used in order to describe certain health conditions and discrete variables can be used in quantifying data on health measures.
Probability is also an important factor when discussing health-related statistics, however, it is important to understand the differences between binomial and normal probability distributions. Based on information from Sullivan, L. (2018), binomial probability can be used when an experiment has two different outcomes while normal probability is used in order to calculate the likelihood that a specific event may occur, this may include the event that an individuals will screen positive for a disease during the study or experiment (p. 70-75). Binomial probability can be used when using discrete variables as they may include multiple categories within each variable, while it is best to use normal probability distribution when using continuous random variables for which there may only be one important distribution in the data set (Viti, A., Terzi, A., and Bertolaccini, L., 2015). The 68-95-99.7 rule or empirical rule is used in normal distribution to describe the range in which a value falls in relation to the mean. It dictates that 68% of all values will fall within one standard deviation from the mean, 95% of values will fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean, and 99.7% of values will fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean (Sullivan, L., 2018, p.79). You can anticipate that a continuous variable with a normal distribution will always fall between the mean – 3 standard deviations or the mean + 3 standard deviations with the total area of a curve in a probability distribution being 1 when can then find out where a variable lies within a normal distribution (Sullivan, L., 2018, p.79-80).
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, May 18). Principles of Epidemiology: Lesson 4, Section 1|Self-Study course SS1978|CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 16, 2023, from https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson4/section1.html
Sullivan, L. (2018). Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Viti, A., Terzi, A., & Bertolaccini, L. (2015). A practical overview on probability distributions. Journal of thoracic disease, 7(3), E7–E10. https://doi.org/10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.01.37
reply 2
by Elisabeth Lewis – Thursday, 19 January 2023, 12:11 AM
The difference between discrete random variables and continuous random variables lies in the type of measurement system. Figuring out how many patients go to a clinic, what procedures are more frequently used, or keeping track of medical referrals are all examples of discrete values in the healthcare setting. Regarding continuous values, measuring patient’s vitals at checkups, tracking health quality of patients on a diet, or recording treatments are important in data collection. Keeping track of health conditions, using continuous values, would prove better as the data will not stay the same every time a researcher or health care professional repeats their method of collection. For health measures, using both is potentially what will posit different angles for assessment.

Using probability is inevitable, whether it be what the likelihood of passing a course is or getting stuck in traffic, it is a facet of daily life that individuals use to infer and make decisions based off outside variables. There are several situations that one can use trends to aid that decision, like studying a little every day to improve the grade on an exam or looking at traffic reports to see what times have an influx of cars on the road. For discrete values, using binomial probability distribution is best for that data set and for continuous values, normal probability distribution works regarding that value. The reasoning for using the binomial distribution model for discrete values gives researchers another reference point that accounts for a finite outcome, whereas the normal probability distribution is infinite in its scope that suits continuous values (Sullivan, 2018). Interpreting data based off the 68-95-99.7 rule means that there is a normal distribution with a curve that accounts for values that fall between either the mean and one to three standard deviations, depending on the range the variable falls under within the curve.
References
Sullivan, L. (2018). Essentials of Biostatistics in Public Health (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

Instructions Complete your Course Capstone Project (research report). Your repor

Instructions
Complete your Course Capstone Project (research report). Your report must be 6 to 8 pages long, not including the title page. You must revise and improve on previously submitted capstone components for the final submission. Each of the following components is required:
Title page: Follow APA guidelines for formatting your title page. Include the following information: your name, project title, course information, and date.
Problem statement (½ page)
Purpose of study: Why is this research being conducted?
Objectives: What do you hope to accomplish with the research?
Literature review (5+ articles, 2 to 3 pages)
Compare the sample data sets and statistical models used to analyze the data in each article. In what ways are they similar? Dissimilar?
Are the findings and recommendations offered by each article similar or dissimilar? If dissimilar, do the findings and recommendations contradict each other?
Critique the articles. Which data sets, statistical methodologies, and findings seem most valid? Why? Which recommendations are most persuasive? Why?
Cite the articles throughout the literature review to remain grounded in your research.
Methodology (2 to 3 pages)
Subjects: Who was studied? What are the characteristics of the population samples (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status, etc.)? How were the sample subjects selected? Address validity requirements (i.e., appropriate sample sizes, appropriate causal relationships among variables, etc.). Provide clear rationale for how and why sample subjects were chosen.
Data collection: Describe how sample data was collected and organized. Was the data quantitative or categorical or both? Describe how each variable was measured and how data reliability was ensured.
Data analysis: Describe the data in terms of population parameters (i.e., means, medians, standard deviations, etc.), and describe which statistical methods were used (i.e., ANOVA, linear regression, t-test, chi-square, etc.) to analyze the data.
Results: Interpret the results of the statistical analyses suitable for presentation to stakeholders who may not understand statistical terminology.
Conclusion: Describe the outcomes suggested by the data. Describe the strengths and limitations of the analyses.
APA formatted bibliography
Complete narrated slideshow:
Create a narrated slideshow (up to 10 slides) presentation to provide information to community leaders, stakeholders, and other public health professionals.
Record your assignment using Zoom (Zoom Tutorial—Recording Personal Video). After your recording is complete, follow these instructions to create a private, unlisted YouTube video. You need the YouTube video URL for this assignment. Submit your YouTube video URL and do not upload a video file (mp4). The best way to do this is to copy and paste the URL for the YouTube video into the submission box. Your faculty will access your video via the link.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

Write a 2- to 3-page methodology section of your research report. The methodolog

Write a 2- to 3-page methodology section of your research report. The methodology section should expand on the work you began last week in your learning team. You revise and improve the draft you submit this week for your final Course Capstone Project submission. Your methodology section must contain the following subsections:
Subjects: Who was studied? What are the characteristics of the population samples (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status, etc.)? How were the sample subjects selected? Address validity requirements (i.e., appropriate sample sizes, appropriate causal relationships among variables, etc.). Provide clear rationale for how and why sample subjects were chosen.
Data collection: Describe how sample data was collected and organized. Was the data quantitative or categorical or both? Describe how each variable was measured and how data reliability was ensured.
Data analysis: Describe the data in terms of population parameters (i.e., means, medians, standard deviations, etc.), and describe which statistical methods were used (i.e., ANOVA, linear regression, t-test, chi-square, etc.) to analyze the data.
Results: Interpret the results of the statistical analyses suitable for presentation to stakeholders who may not understand statistical terminology.
Conclusion: Describe the outcomes suggested by the data. Describe the strengths and limitations of the analyses.
Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
Submit the methodology section in a Word document using the following instructions.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

Instructions Complete your Course Capstone Project (research report). Your repor

Instructions
Complete your Course Capstone Project (research report). Your report must be 6 to 8 pages long, not including the title page. You must revise and improve on previously submitted capstone components for the final submission. Each of the following components is required:
Title page: Follow APA guidelines for formatting your title page. Include the following information: your name, project title, course information, and date.
Problem statement (½ page)
Purpose of study: Why is this research being conducted?
Objectives: What do you hope to accomplish with the research?
Literature review (5+ articles, 2 to 3 pages)
Compare the sample data sets and statistical models used to analyze the data in each article. In what ways are they similar? Dissimilar?
Are the findings and recommendations offered by each article similar or dissimilar? If dissimilar, do the findings and recommendations contradict each other?
Critique the articles. Which data sets, statistical methodologies, and findings seem most valid? Why? Which recommendations are most persuasive? Why?
Cite the articles throughout the literature review to remain grounded in your research.
Methodology (2 to 3 pages)
Subjects: Who was studied? What are the characteristics of the population samples (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status, etc.)? How were the sample subjects selected? Address validity requirements (i.e., appropriate sample sizes, appropriate causal relationships among variables, etc.). Provide clear rationale for how and why sample subjects were chosen.
Data collection: Describe how sample data was collected and organized. Was the data quantitative or categorical or both? Describe how each variable was measured and how data reliability was ensured.
Data analysis: Describe the data in terms of population parameters (i.e., means, medians, standard deviations, etc.), and describe which statistical methods were used (i.e., ANOVA, linear regression, t-test, chi-square, etc.) to analyze the data.
Results: Interpret the results of the statistical analyses suitable for presentation to stakeholders who may not understand statistical terminology.
Conclusion: Describe the outcomes suggested by the data. Describe the strengths and limitations of the analyses.
APA formatted bibliography
Complete narrated slideshow:
Create a narrated slideshow (up to 10 slides) presentation to provide information to community leaders, stakeholders, and other public health professionals.
Record your assignment using Zoom (Zoom Tutorial—Recording Personal Video). After your recording is complete, follow these instructions to create a private, unlisted YouTube video. You need the YouTube video URL for this assignment. Submit your YouTube video URL and do not upload a video file (mp4). The best way to do this is to copy and paste the URL for the YouTube video into the submission box. Your faculty will access your video via the link.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

Write a 2- to 3-page methodology section of your research report. The methodolog

Write a 2- to 3-page methodology section of your research report. The methodology section should expand on the work you began last week in your learning team. You revise and improve the publish you submit this week for your final Course Capstone Project submission. Your methodology section must contain the following subsections:
Subjects: Who was studied? What are the characteristics of the population samples (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status, etc.)? How were the sample subjects selected? Address validity requirements (i.e., appropriate sample sizes, appropriate causal relationships among variables, etc.). Provide clear rationale for how and why sample subjects were chosen.
Data collection: Describe how sample data was collected and organized. Was the data quantitative or categorical or both? Describe how each variable was measured and how data reliability was ensured.
Data analysis: Describe the data in terms of population parameters (i.e., means, medians, standard deviations, etc.), and describe which statistical methods were used (i.e., ANOVA, linear regression, t-test, chi-square, etc.) to analyze the data.
Results: Interpret the results of the statistical analyses suitable for presentation to stakeholders who may not understand statistical terminology.
Conclusion: Describe the outcomes suggested by the data. Describe the strengths and limitations of the analyses.
Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
Submit the methodology section in a Word document using the following instructions.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

This module focuses on inferential statistics. As a reminder, inferential statis

This module focuses on inferential statistics. As a reminder, inferential statistics are used to determine the probability that a conclusion based on analysis of data from a sample is true (Norman & Streiner, 2008). The purpose of this discussion is to show the various types of hypotheses, how to identify them in an article and the importance of “significance” and a p-value.
For this discussion, use a peer-reviewed article (focused on a health study) of your choice to:
Identify the Ho and H1
Identify and explain what “significance” is in a general sense and in your chosen article. Be sure to discuss the p-value.

Categories
Health Care and Life Sciences : Biostatistics

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States
which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age
group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV.
Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are
the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?
1. Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess
conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.
2. Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been
tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT)/(
P (NT) + p (T), where p is probability.
3. What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the
values in the 18-44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / (p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.
Show your work.
Submit your (2 pages).